Antibody Conjugate Applications
Alkaline Phosphatase-labeled Antibodies
Alkaline phosphatase (AP)-labeled antibodies that provide a performance edge over standard AP conjugates. ReserveAP Conjugates are affinity purified and conjugated to the highest grade of alkaline phosphatase.
Anti-FluorTag Antibodies and Conjugates
Anti-FluorTag antibodies enable researchers using fluorescently-tagged primary antibodies in flow cytometry applications to reuse these primaries in immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocols.
Antibodies labeled with biotin provide the user with a tool for increasing the sensitivity of an assay by its ability to amplify a given reaction. A biotin/streptavidin (avidin) system offers significant sensitivity and low background.
Cyanine Dye-labeled Antibodies
Cy dye fluorochromes are one of the popular choices for fluorescent labeling in applications such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and fluorescent immunoassays.
DyLight labeled Antibodies and Streptavidin
DyLightTM Fluorescent Conjugates
KPL DyLight conjugates offer a brilliant choice in a variety of immunofluorescence detection applications. They combine the sensitivity and reproducibility of our affinity purified secondary antibodies with a series of DyLight dyes that span the light spectra from visible to infrared.
Rhodamine-labeled Antibodies (TRITC)
Tetramethylrhodamineisothiocyanate (TRITC) is a derivative of rhodamine and is frequently paired with FITC for double labeling. It is more photostable than FITC but fades with time.
R-Phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled Antibodies
Phycoerythrins are light-harvesting phycobiliproteins found in red, blue-green, and crytomonad algae. R-phycoerythrin is derived specifically from red algae.
Streptavidin is a protein isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii and has no carbohydrate moieties. It has a molecular weight of approximately 60,000 Daltons with an isoelectric point of 5. Streptavidin and avidin have a high affinity (Kd = 10 -15 M -1 ) to biotin and are the basis for the most widely used technique for amplification and detection in tissues or cells.
Horseradish Peroxidase-labeled Antibodies
Antibodies are conjugated to enzymes in order to amplify the signal via the catalytic properties of the enzyme. Most commonly used enzymes for this purpose are alkaline phosphatase (AP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP).
KPL gold-labeled conjugates are made using two colloidal gold sizes; blotting grade 40 nm and microscopy grade 5 nm. They are reacted with affinity purified antibodies using a proprietary method to remove any uncoupled antibody or remaining unbound gold. Gold conjugates can detect as little as 60 pg of protein on a membrane when used with KPL's Silver Enhancer Kit.
Unlabeled Affinity Purified Antibodies
KPL unlabeled antibodies are affinity purified utilizing a proprietary affinity chromatography method. This method is designed to remove nonspecific immunoglobulins and other serum proteins, while selecting for antibodies of high avidity and specificity.
Fluorescein-labeled Antibodies (FITC)
Fluorescein is a fluorochrome that has been widely used in fluorescent assays, and offers the advantage of high quantum yield when attached to protein.